Gingival diseases (periodontal diseases) are infectious diseases that affect the tissues surrounding and supporting the teeth. Even teeth without any cavities can be lost due to this disease, as it causes destruction in the bone and soft tissues surrounding the tooth. Periodontal diseases can occur at any age. The symptoms are hardly noticeable to the patient, as they usually progress painlessly until the final stage.
The disease affects only the gingiva at the initial stage. At this stage, it manifests symptoms, such as bad breath, swollen gingiva, redness and a bright appearance, bleeding during brushing or spontaneous bleeding. While the most important cause is insufficient oral care, it may also occur due to reasons such as tartar formation, unsuitable restorations, or genetic predisposition. It is possible to treat it by ensuring an adequate oral hygiene following a decent tartar and root surface cleaning.
If adequate treatments are not performed at this stage, the gingiva, fibers connecting the dental root to the bone, and bone supporting the tooth are destroyed by the effects of the bacterial plaque and tartars accumulated around the teeth. The progression of this infection, called chronic periodontitis, causes tooth loss. Cases of chronic periodontitis diagnosed at the beginning can be treated with non-surgical methods, while advanced cases of chronic periodontitis are treated with additional surgical methods. Some systemic diseases such as diabetes along with factors like stress and smoking affect the severity of chronic periodontitis and its response to treatment.