Ceramics used in dentistry have been successfully used for many years in the oral region thanks to their biocompatibility, resistance to solubility, and non-toxic properties. However, on their own, they are extremely fragile materials which do not have any resistance to the force of chewing. Porcelain must be reinforced with a durable substrate. Metal substrates used in conventional porcelain crowns usually contain nickel-chrome ingredients. These types of restorations can be used both for anterior and posterior dental restorations thanks to their superior mechanical properties. Nevertheless, the metals used as substrate materials are of gray color, get corroded and do not permeate light. Therefore, the transparency of the porcelain material is prevented by the metal alloy in the substrate. Consequently, final restorations appear more opaque than natural teeth, specifically in the front area, due to the failure of the restoration material to permeate any light, unlike a natural tooth. This is mostly related to the amount of light permeated through the restoration rather than the color of the restoration. For this reason, in recent years, the use of zirconium, which permeates light in the color of the tooth, as a porcelain substrate material has become quite widespread.
It has been used as a substrate material in the form of zirconium oxide in dentistry for the last 20 years. Being a material with extremely high fracture resistance made it possible for zirconium to be safely used both for single crowns and bridge restorations. Since zirconium substrates are of tooth color and light-permeable, they make it possible to apply quite aesthetic restorations that bear the appearance of natural teeth. They do not cause any gray colors at the gingival edge, and do not get corroded, while offering a safe solution for patients allergic to nickel alloy that is used as a substrate material for metal-supported porcelains. Processed with the CAD/CAM (computer-aided design and manufacturing) principle, zirconium crowns offer optimal results both in terms of durability, suitability for teeth, and aesthetics.